This research area studies the chemistry of living matter from its most basic elements, the biological processes on a molecular level, the structure, properties and functions of biomolecules, molecular mechanisms and mechanisms that regulate biotransformations, enzymatic catalysts, metabolism, fermentations, gene expression and regulation, transduction of signals, intra- and inter-cellular communication; biochemical mechanisms of the functions of prokaryotic cells in plants, animals and humans during the various phases of growth, differentiation, development and apoptosis; enzymology and bioenergetics; the biochemical interactions between organisms and organisms and their environment; biochemistry of the environment and pollution; biochemical methodologies for the identification, characterisation and analysis of biomolecules, structural molecular biology, crystallography; the biochemical basis of pathological, dietary and nutritional states in humans and other organisms; nutritional science; comparative biochemical aspects and specific biochemical properties of cells, tissues, organs, single- and multi-cellular organisms and humans, systematic human biochemistry, and systematic and comparative veterinary biochemistry. Furthermore it studies the analysis of the biochemical and evolutionary characteristics of nucleic acids, the interactions between nucleic acids and proteins, between different types of proteins and the existing relationship between the three-dimensional structure of proteins and their biological functions in all organisms, including viruses, prokaryotes and eukaryotes.